HIGHER TAXON

Krobia is a genus of the subfamily Cichlasomatinae, tribe Cichlasomatini.

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AUTHOR

Sven O Kullander

HOSTED BY

Krobia Kullander & Nijssen

Synonymy

Krobia Kullander & Nijssen, 1989. Cichlids of Surinam, p. 148 (type species by original designation Acara guianensis Regan). — Feminine.

Krobia sp., freshly preserved specimen from the Kourou River, French Guiana, NRM 27963. Photo © S.O. Kullander
Krobia sp, freshly preserved specimen from the Kourou River, French Guiana, NRM 27963. Photo: S.O. Kullander.

Diagnosis

Moderate-sized South American cichlids (to 128 mm SL) with four dentary lateralis foramina, distinguished from all other cichlids by characters in combination: uniserial predorsal squamation; narrowly scaled or naked vertical fins; blotchy lateral band from head toward end of base of dorsal fin; lateral line sequence dorsally on caudal fin situated between rays D3 and D4; similar to Bujurquina, Tahuantinsuyoa and 'Aequidens' pulcher in having ledges forming a furrow for the hyoid artery dorsally on the ceratohyal, though lower than in the listed genera.

Other characters of Krobia include lip folds of American type, both discontinuous; jaw teeth caniniform, little recurved; premaxilla without rostral foramen; 12+13 vertebrae; 2 supraneurals; 3-4 vertebrae within caudal peduncle; parhypural spine present; paired short hypapophyses on 4th vertebra; microbranchiospines externally on 2nd to 4th arches, variably internally; externally on first gill arch 1-2 epibranchial and 3-5 ceratobranchial gill rakers; 2-3 toothplates on 4th ceratobranchial; wide epibranchial 1; rod-like pharyngobranchial 1; minute interarcual cartilage; moderately wide cephalic lateralis canals and foramina; flank and chest scales ctenoid, large, squ. long. 23-24, modally 23; upper lateral line in 3rd horizontal scale series above the lower, at 3 (initially) to 1 1/2 (terminally) scales distance from dorsal fin; prepelvic scales cycloid in median and 2 parallel series on each side; naked preoperculum; 16 circumpeduncular scale series; operculum with 2 vertical series of scales; dorsal fin scaled; pectoral and pelvic fins naked; accessory caudal fin lateral lines between rays D3-D4 and V4-V5 or absent; pectoral fin asymmetrical, 4th ray longest; pelvic fin with first ray longest; dorsal fin with 13-15 spines, 9-11 rays (mode D. XIV.10); anal fin with 3 spines, 7-9 (modally 8) rays; caudal fin subtruncate or slightly emarginate, with 3 procurrent and 8 principal rays in each lobe; 4 vertical bars posterior to the one containing midlateral spot; three facial stripes between eyes; suborbital stripe present at all sizes; no blue stripes or dots on head sides; caudal fin base spot superior; lateral band running to or toward end of base of dorsal fin; caudal fin immaculate or dusky with clear dots, which are smaller in ventral than in dorsal lobe. (Adapted from Kullander & Nijssen, 1989.)

Included species

Krobia guianensis (Regan, 1905)
Krobia itanyi (Puyo, 1943)

Three undescribed species are recognized, two from French Guiana and one from the Rio Xingu (Kullander & Nijssen, 1989).

Key to species

Body depth 40.0-45.3% of SL; lateral band ending well in advance of end of soft dorsal fin base; three facial stripes clearly visible......................Krobia itanyi
Body depth 41.3-50.8% of SL; lateral band continued to end of soft dorsal fin base; two posterior of three facial stripes indistinct................Krobia guianensis

Etymology

Krobia is a Surinamese vernacular name applied on several cichlid species, including Krobia guianensis.

Geographical distribution

The generic range includes the Guianas, the Araguari, the Amapá and the Xingu river drainages.

References

KULLANDER, S.O. & H. NIJSSEN.1989. The cichlids of Surinam. E.J. Brill, Leiden and other cities, XXXIII+256 pp.