HIGHER TAXON

Guianacara is a genus of the subfamily Geophaginae, tribe Acarichthyini, most similar to Acarichthys.

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AUTHOR

Sven O Kullander

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Guianacara Kullander & Nijssen

Synonymy

Guianacara Kullander & Nijssen, 1989. Cichlids of Surinam, p. 90 (type species by original designation Guianacara owroewefi Kullander & Nijssen). - Feminine.
Guianacara (Guianacara) Kullander & Nijssen, 1989. Cichlids of Surinam, p. 92 (type species by original designation Guianacara owroewefi Kullander & Nijssen). - Feminine.
Guianacara (Oelemaria) Kullander & Nijssen, 1989. Cichlids of Surinam, p. 92 (type species by original designation Guianacara oelemariensis Kullander & Nijssen). - Feminine.

Guianacara owroewefi, freshly collected specimen from Crique Voltaire, French Guiana, NRM 28351. Photo © S.O. Kullander.
Guianacara owroewefi, freshly collected specimen from Crique Voltaire, French Guiana, NRM 28351. Photo: S.O. Kullander.

Diagnosis

Small (to 107 mm SL) South American cichlids with 6 preopercular and 5 dentary lateralis canal foramina, stochastic predorsal squamation, supraneurals 1-2, vertebrae 13+14 (occasionally 13+13). Similar to Geophagus, Satanoperca and Biotodoma but without lobe like expansion of first epibranchial; particularly similar to Acarichthys in having an anteroventral entopterygoid process, wide flattened lateral commissure, wide dorsal lamina on parasphenoid and basisphenoid, narrow fenestra between coracoid and cleithrum, and inner branch of first ray of pelvic fin longer than outer branch in adults. Uniquely distinguished by a dorsal shelf on urohyal, hyperdeveloped nasad process of lateral ethmoid, and mediad curved anterior margin of distal postcleithrum.

The nominotypical subgenus is distinguished from Oelemaria by having 2 instead of 1 supraneural, a prominent dark stripe across the middle of the side (may be reduced to a dorsal spot in adults) instead of a dark midlateral spot on the side, and produced anterior dorsal fin lappets in adults.

Included species

Guianacara (Guianacara) geayi (Pellegrin, 1902)
Acara Geayi Pellegrin, 1902. Bull. Mus. Hist. nat. 8, p. 417 (Rivière Camopi (Guyane française)).
Guianacara (Guianacara) owroewefi Kullander & Nijssen, 1989
Guianacara owroewefi Kullander & Nijssen, 1989. Cichlids of Surinam, p. 97, fig. 43 (Guyane française, R. Maroni system, R. Marouini below first rapids).
Guianacara (Guianacara) sphenozona Kullander & Nijssen, 1989
Guianacara sphenozona Kullander & Nijssen, 1989. Cichlids of Surinam, p. 120, fig. 66 (Suriname, Distr. Nickerie, Corantijn R. drainage, Sipaliwini).
Guianacara (Oelemaria) oelemariensis Kullander & Nijssen, 1989
Guianacara oelemariensis Kullander & Nijssen, 1989. Cichlids of Surinam, p. 126, fig. 70 (Suriname, Distr. Marowijne, Marowijne R. drainage, small right bank tributary to the upper Oelemari R.)

Additional species are known from the Trombetas and Caroni drainages.

Key to species

Key to Surinamese species from Kullander & Nijssen (1989).

1. Large midlateral spot; no produced dorsal fin lappets; single supraneural .................Guianacara oelemariensis
Stripe across side, except in some large specimens in which the stripe reduced to a dorsal spot; anterior dorsal fin lappets produced; two supraneurals .............2

2. Flank stripe strongest on and below upper lateral line; dorsal fin membranes between the anterior 3 dorsal fin spines black ...........................Guianacara owroewefi
Flank stripe wedge shaped, strongest on and above upper lateral line; anterior 3 dorsal fin lappets black in young only .........................Guianacara sphenozona

Etymology

Guianacara is composed of the prefix Guiana-, for the Guianas, principal area of distribution, and the suffix -acara, from acará, the Tupi name for cichlids.
Oelemaria is for the Oelemari Rivier, to which G. oelemariensis may be restricted.

Geographical distribution

The Guianas from the Cuyuni drainage eastward to the Oyapock drainage; in the Amazon basin in the upper Branco and Trombetas drainages; in the Orinoco basin in the Caroni drainage.

References

KULLANDER, S.O. & H. NIJSSEN.1989. The cichlids of Surinam. E.J. Brill, Leiden and other cities.
PELLEGRIN, J. 1902. Cichlidé nouveau de la Guyane française. Bull. Mus. Hist. nat. 8: 417-419.