Crenicichla is the most species rich genusof South American cichlids, with about 75 valid species, and about 20-25 species awaiting description. They range in size from about 8 cm SL to about 40 cm SL and occur all over cis-Andean tropical South America.





Sven O Kullander


Crenicichla rosemariae Kullander


Crenicichla rosemariae Kullander, 1997. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters 7: 280, fig. 1 (Brazil, State of Pará, Rio Xingu drainage, Córrego do Gato).

Crenicichla rosemariae. Holotype, MZUSP 40300, male 244 mm SL. Photo © S.O. Kullander
Crenicichla rosemariae. Holotype, MZUSP 40300, male 244 mm SL. Photo: S.O. Kullander


A large, small-scaled Crenicichla species with blunt snout, nostril situated close to margin of postlabial skin fold, serrated preopercle, E1 scales 103-115 and D. XXI.17-19, XXII.17-18. Scales cycloid only, or ctenoid to a limited extent anteriorly on the side. Distinguished from all other Crenicichla species by adult colour pattern: black spot on cheek close to posteroventral margin of orbit, another close to posterodorsal margin of orbit; a prominent blackish vertical blotch from anterior lateral line scales down to pectoral fin base and into pectoral axilla; round, small caudal spot restricted to dorsal lobe; males with brownish or whitish (in preservative) or red (in life) spots scattered over middle and dorsal sides, lacking in the female. (From Kullander, 1997.)

The original description was based on four males, 184-244 mm SL, and one female, 192 mm SL.


MZUSP 40300. Male, 244 mm SL. Brazil, State of Pará, Rio Xingu drainage, Córrego do Gato. Collected 25 April 1968 by R.H. Lowe-McConnell.


Named for Dr Rosemary Helen Lowe-McConnell, collector of the type specimens and persistent inspiratrix to students of tropical fish ecology.

Local names

Called rubanana at the type locality (Lowe-McConnell, in Kullander, 1997).

Geographical distribution

Known only from the type locality in the upper rio Xingu drainage, a headwater stream of the rio Suiá-Missu at ca 13°31'S, 52°W (Lowe-McConnell, 1991: 65, fig. 1).

Natural history

The type specimens were observed and collected in a large, clear pool, about 30x10 m, 2-3 m deep, from which the Córrego do Gato stream originated. Vegetation included rooted macrophytes. Large specimens were observed near the bottom of the pool, with bright orange eyes clearly visible (Lowe-McConnell, 1991: 72, fig. 4).


KULLANDER, S.O. 1997. Crenicichla rosemariae, a new species of pike cichlid (Teleostei, Cichlidae) from the upper Rio Xingu drainage, Brazil. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters, 7: 279-281.
LOWE-McCONNELL, R.H. 1991. Natural history of fishes in Araguaia and Xingu Amazonian tributaries, Serra do Roncador, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters, 2: 63-82.