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    n° 9, November 1995

Secretary: Cécile Mourer-Chauviré
Département des Sciences de la Terre
Université Claude Bernard - Lyon 1
27-43 Boul. du 11 Novembre
69622 Villeurbanne Cedex FRANCE
Fax: (33) 72. 44. 83. 82


3-7 June 1996

        The 4th stated meeting of SAPE will be held in conjunction with the 150th anniversary of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C., from 3-7 June 1996. Registration forms will be sent out in November or December. If you have not already resquested to be placed on the list to receive circulars and registration forms, please contact: Storrs L. Olson, National Museum of Natural History MCR 116, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, U.S.A.

The deadline for receipt of manuscripts of papers presented
at the meeting will be the last day of the meeting
Prepare your paper now

Manuscripts may be submitted to Storrs Olson at any time prior to the meeting. Publication is intended for Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology.

        Because the auction that we help at the SAPE meeting in Frankfurt was so successful and entertaining, we will be holding another auction to raise money for SAPE at the Washington meeting. Bring books, reprints, fossils, casts, memorabilia, etc. that you wish to donate for the auction.

Do NOT bring specimens (e. g. skeletons) of modern birds

U.S. laws regarding importation of wildlife are very strict and cumbersome. Attempting to bring in skeletal specimens without proper permits might cause considerable legal problems. If you wish to offer skeletal specimens for the SAPE auction, bring a certificate that the purchase can redeem upon returning to his or her institution. It will be up to the supplier and the purchaser to obtain the necessary permits for shipping specimens between their respective countries. If it is absolutely necessary for you to import non-fossil specimens of birds for research purposes during your visit to the U.S., please contact us for information about the required permits.

        Storrs OLSON asked Peter WELLNHOFER to organize a symposium/roundtable discussion on

The origin and early evolution of birds

within the program of the 4th SAPE meeting. Stoors and Peter have agreed that the final day of the meeting, Friday, 7th June 1996, should be devoted to Mesozoic birds with formal presentations in the morning session and a roundtable discussion in the afternoon. Emphasis is given to the “early” evolution of birds thus excluding Late Cretaceous birds of modern aspect.
        For the roundtable they do not plan, and do not wish to admit, formal presentations or scheduled talks. It shopuld be our goal to discuss frankly and openly a number of problems where there are opposing views. Our discussion should also greatly benefit from new data based on recent discoveries of Jurassic and Lower Cretacous birds from China and Korea. The format of the roundtable could be a series of colloquies on given themes, moderated by selected participants. Moderators should be responsible for directing the discussions. If you want to participate in the roundtable discussions you may bring handouts and specimens. There will be probably a projector if you want to show a slide, and a blackboard.
        The major themes for a roundtable that Peter has identified so far include:

1) New aspects on bird's ancestry

2) Early evolution and radiation of birds

3) Origin and evolution of the flight apparatus of birds

        Peter is open for any further proposals of areas which should be included as well as for any suggestions concerning the format of the roundtable. But, please, remember there will not be formal presentations, and emphasis is given to the “early” fossil records of birds.
        If you have any ideas and suggestions, please contact:
Peter WELLNHOFER, Bayerische Staatssammlung für Paläontologie und historische Geologie, D-80333 München, Germany, Tel (**49) 89 5203365, Fax (**49) 89 5203276, e-mail: 100071,

News from the members


        Jorge NORIEGA and Claudia TAMBUSSI are working jointly with A. MYRCHA (Warsaw University, Branch in Bialystok) on Antarctic avian remains. They are revising all the tarsometatarsi of penguins collected by Polish and Argentinian expeditions at the Paleogene La Meseta Formation. They are also studying a falconid bird referred to Polyborinae from the Eocene of La Meseta Formation in Seymour Island (Antarctica). The preliminar results will be presented in next November at the SVP meeting in Pittsburgh (U.S.A.). This remain is very interesting because it represents not only the first record of this group in Antarctica, but it is one of the very scarce carnivorous of the Eocene Antarctic vertebrate assemblage.
        Jorge NORIEGA, Claudia TAMBUSSI and Eduardo TONNI have just finished a paper on the White-tufted grebe (Rollandia rolland), which constitues the first record of this species for South America. The material comes from sediments referred to the Late Pliocene - Early Pleistocene and represents an interesting case of evolutive stasis within the avifaunal dynamics during the Late Cenozoic.
        Jorge and Eduardo made two other papers, one on a new species of Pseudoseisura (Passeriformes: Furnariidae), and the other on a new species of Nandayus (Psittaciformes), coming from the Early-Mid Pleistocene and Late Pliocene of Buenos Aires Province respectively. Both records are useful to reconstruct paleoenvironmental conditions of the Chaco-Pampean region during the Late Cenozoic.
        Claudia has started to work on the Patagonian fossil penguins. In October-November 1995, she will visit the AMNH collections to compare recent and fossil penguins. She has recently be awarded a Chapman Fund grant to develop a project, the main goal of which is the study of a nearly complete skeleton from the Mid-Miocene of Patagonia. It is a very interesting specimen, not only because of its exceptional preservation, but also by its mosaic of characters between Early-Miocene and Post-Miocene-Recent penguins.

TAMBUSSI C. P., NORIEGA J. I., GAZDZICKI A., TATUR A., REGUERO M., and VIZCAINO S. (1995) - Ratite bird from the Paleogene La Meseta Formation, Seymour Island, Antarctica. Polish Polar Research, 15 (1-2): 15-20.
NORIEGA J. I. and TAMBUSSI C. P. (1995) - A Late Cretaceous Presbyornithidae (Aves: Anseriformes) from Vega Island, Antarctic Peninsula: Paleobiogeographic implications. Ameghiniana, 32 (1): 57-61.


        During the six months he spent at the Université Claude Bernard - Lyon 1, in France, Zlatozar BOEV made the preliminary determination of fossil bird remains from Bulgaria and Vietnam. The list of sites and taxa are as follows:

Varshets (MN 17), Bulgaria
        Aegypius sp., Gypeatinae gen., Aquila sp., Hieraeetus sp., Falco sp. 1, Falco sp. 2, Circaetus sp., Accipiter sp., Tetrao cf. tetrix, Lagopus balcanicus, Alectoris sp., Phasianus sp. 1, Phasianus sp. 2, Perdicinae gen., Otitidae gen., Gallinula cf. chloropus, Porzana sp., Columba sp., Actitis sp., Apus sp., Alauda sp., Lullula sp., Galerida sp., Anthus sp., Motacilla sp., Sitta sp., Turdus cf. philomelos, Turdus cf. merula, Turdus sp., Luscinia sp., Phylloscopus sp., Muscicapa sp., Regulus sp., Regulidae gen., Parus sp. 1, Parus sp. 2, Parus sp. 3, Emberiza sp., Lanius sp., Fringilla cf. coelebs, Fringilla sp., Carduelis cf. carduelis, Carduelis sp., Coccothraustes sp., Loxia sp., Pyrrhula sp., Sturnus sp., Pyrrhocorax cf. graculus, Corvus cf. monedula, Corvus sp., Pica sp., Passeriformes indet.

Slivnitsa (MN 18), Bulgaria
        Falco sp., Aquila sp., Ciconia sp., cf. Ardeidae gen., Geronticus sp., Aythya sp., Perdicinae gen., Turdus cf. philomelos, Turdidae gen., Coccothraustes sp., Emberiza sp., Lullula sp., Pyrrhocorax graculus, Pyrrhocorax sp., Corvus cf. monedula, Corvus sp., Corvus cf. praecorax, Corvidae gen., Pica sp.

Muselievo (MN 15), Bulgaria
        Lagopus sp., Pavo cf. bravardi, Falco sp., Accipiter cf. gentilis, Passeriformes fam. et gen. indet.

Dorkovo (MN 15), Bulgaria
        Anas sp., Tetrao sp., Phasianidae gen.

Hrabarsko (MN 14/15), Bulgaria
        Alaudidae gen. 1, Alaudidae gen. 2.

Maxa, Upper Pleistocene, Vietnam
        Anthracocreos malabaricus

Dieu, Upper Pleistocene, Vietnam
        Buteo sp., Circus cf. cyaneus, Aquilinae gen., Falconidae gen., Phasianus colchicus, Gallus gallus, Phasianidae gen. 1, Phasianidae gen. 2, Phasianidae gen. 3, Phasianidae gen. 4, Lophura cf. nycthemera, Lophura diardi, Polyplectron cf. bicalcaratus, Polyplectron sp., Chrysolophus sp., Arborophila brunneopectus, Arborophila sp., Perdicinae gen., Scolopacidae gen., Columbidae gen. 1, Columbidae gen . 2, Strigidae gen., Anthracoceros malabaricus, Bucerotidae gen., Megalaima sp., Picidae gen. 1, Picidae gen. 2, Turdus sp. 1, Turdus sp. 2, Turdus/Zoothera sp., Sturnus sp., Corvidae gen.

        Zlatozar's work also includes the renovation of the Ornithological exposition of the National Museum of Natural History in Sofia (Passeriform birds, 1st stage - Redetermination of 392 exotic passerine species). Several world rarities were established among them, such as Carduelis cucullata, Fodia flavicans etc... Zlatozar supervises the diploma work of two students on the food spectrum of Bubo bubo and Asio otus in Eastern Bulgaria. Some of the Eagle Owls' sites are Early Holocene.

BOEV Z. N. (1994) - Upper Pleistocene Bird. In KOZLOWSKI J.K., LAVILLE H., GINTER B (Eds.) - Temnata Cave. Excavations in Karlukovo Karst Area, Bulgaria, 1. 2., Cracow, Jagellonian Univ. Press: 55-86.
ILIEV N., BOEV Z., SPASSOV N. (1993) - Ossements d'animaux de la ville romaine de Ratiaria (IIème-IVème s.) près d'Arcar, village de la région de Montana. Archeologiya, 4: 52-59 (in Bulgarian, French summary).
BOEV Z. N. (1994) - The Black Grouse (Tetrao tetrix L., 1758) - a disappeared species in Bulgaria (Paleolithic and Neolithic records). In KOKABI M. J., WAHL T., UHLIN J. R. International Council for Archaeozoology, International Congress, Konstanz, Germany, Abstracts, p. 16.


        HOU LIANHAI and ZHOU ZHONGHE have recently published a preliminary papaer on the newly discovered Late Jurassic birds from China. To celebrate the 65th anniversary of the Institue of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthopology, they also provided an introductory paper entitled “Introduction to Mesozoic birds from Liaoning, China”, which is supposed to be published in October, this year. Zhou also described a new enantiornithine genus and species from the Early Cretaceous of China.
        Many of the planned field trips were unfortunately cancelled by them for such unexpected reasons like Zhou's operation in hospital in April 1995 and the illness of Hou's wife. Nevertheless, Hou still had been able to visit the Zhejiang Natural History Museum in Southeastern China, where he examined a Late Cretaceous long-tailed “bird?” Hou is believing that this is a very primitive bird. But his viewpoint is doubrted by Zhou and David UNWIN who happened to be able to see the interesting material in July, when he was visiting the same museum. Having seen the picture of the material, Larry MARTIN agrees with UNWIN that it is probably a theropod dinosaur rather than a bird. Whatever it might be, all the above mentioned persons agree that it is a very interesting material in terms of the presence of a longitudinal sternum and some other structures.
        Hou and Zhou also feel very proud to have welcomed several of their bird colleagues in Beijing this summer. These people are Larry MARTIN, Evgueny KUROCHKIN, Ralph MOLNAR, David UNWIN and Anusuya CHINSAMY. They came to Beijing to attend the sixth Symposium on Mesozoic Terrestrail Ecosystems and their Biota. On the evening of August 4, there was also a quite informal workshop, held in Hou and Zhou's office, where there was a Mesozoic bird exhibition. Besides those from China, KUROCHKIN and MOLNAR also showed some of their new Early Cretaceous bird materials. Some dinosaur people also joined the workshop. For the same symposium, Hou and Zhou had each submitted a paper, which was published immediately before the meeting. Zhou also gave a talk on the relationships between the early evolution of birds and the Mesozoic materials from China.
        Finally Zhou is going to stay at the University of Kansas, Lawrence, for a couple of years, to get his Ph. D. degree under the supervision of Larry MARTIN (see changes of address). He has brought with him some specimens and casts of the Early Cretaceous birds from China, and is believing that his work on Mesozoic birds will not be interrupted by his academic study there.

HOU L. (1995) - Morphological comparisons between Archaeopteryx and Confuciusornis. In : A. SUN and Q. WANG (Eds.) : Sixth Symposium on Mesozoic Terrestrial Ecosystems and Biota. Short papers, p. 193-202, China Ocean Press.
HOU L., ZHOU Z. et al. (1995) - Confuciusornis sanctus, a new sauriurine bird from the Late Jurassic of China. Chinese Science Bull., 40 (8): 726-729.
HOU L., ZHOU Z. et al. (1995) - Introduction to Mesozoic birds from Liaoning, China. Vert. PalAsiatica, 33 (4).
ZHOU Z. (1995) - Discovery of a new enantiornithine bird from the Early Cretaceous of Liaoning, China. Vert. PalAsiatica, 33 (2): 99-113.
ZHOU Z. (1995) - New understanding of the evolution of the limb and girdle elements in early birds - evidences from Chinese fossils. In : A. SUN and Q. WANG (Eds.) : Sixth Symposium on Mesozoic Terrestrial Ecosystems and Biota. Short papers, p. 209-214, China Ocean Press.


        Jiri MLIKOVSKY indicates that the work on the catalogue of the “Tertiary Avian Localities of Europe” is now well progressing, although the start of this year was extremely bad. His computer was stolen, including the manuscript of the TALE, which was almost ready for press at that time. Consequently, he had to retype most of the articles included in the TALE. Now the manuscript has been accepted for publication in “Acta Universitatis Carolinae, Geologica”, where a separate volume will be given for it. It is hoped that it will appear in February 1996. Before that all contributors will receive a set of proofs.


        JACQUES CHENEVAL has finished the revision of the avifauna from the Miocene deposits of Sansan (South-West of France); this work, which took much more time than expected, will be published in the first volume (geology and all fauna except mammals) of the new "Monography of Sansan". The revision of this avifauna leads to many systematic changes, and some unexpected species are described such as a peafowl, a crane, and a parrot. A treecreeping bird, ascribed to Dendrocolaptidae, is also described; this family, which only lives in South America at the present time, was previously unknown among fossil avifaunas.
        Jacques also started the study of the penguin species from the Pisco Formation (Mio-Pliocene from Peru). The material is particularly abundant, with a complete skeleton in very good preservation, about a dozen partial skeletons, and some hundreds of long bones.

        Christine LEFEVRE has been working on the bird remains collected by the French Archaeological Mission during the survey of the Skyring Sea (Province of Magellan, Patagonia, Chile), and she will present the results at the Second Bird Bones Working Group of the ICAZ, in Southampton, in September 1995.
        She also analyzed the bird remains collected on Shemya Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, in August 1994, and together with her American colleagues (D. CORBETT, US Fish and Wildlife Service and D. SIEGEL-CAUSEY, University of Nebraska), she is preparing a monograph on the history and archaeology of the island.
        The bird skeletons collection of the Laboratoire d'Anatomie comparée of the Paris Museum of Natural History is waiting for visitors willing to help in the verification of some groups. The inventory of the mounted skeketons which were once on display at the public Galerie d'Anatomie comparée is completed. It means that we now have the whole inventory of the bird skeletons collection of the Laboratoire d'Anatomie comparée. We are waiting for a new edition of the World Inventory of Bird Skeleton Specimens to give our list of specimens.
        The inventory of the Milne-Edwards' collection of modern specimens is progressing slowly.

        Cécile MOURER-CHAUVIRÉ and the team working on the fossil material from La Réunion finally realized that the “Solitaire” described by the early travellers was not a Dodo but more probably was the extinct ibis described in 1987 under the name of Borbonibis latipes. This ibis is closely related to the Recent species of Threskiornis, and the Réunion Solitaire is now designated as Threskiornis solitarius (Sélys-Longchamps, 1848). People living on La Réunion have been very disappointed to learn that their island did not harbour a Dodo. The excavations in the marsh of l'Ermitage were pursued in October 1995 but yielded only one remain of Solitaire.
        Cécile has also worked on hind limb bone remains of a small didactyl ratite, found by Brigitte SENUT, Martin PICKFORD, and Pierre MEIN in the Lower Miocene of Namibia, in Southern Africa. These remains represent the oldest Struthio sp. known so far. The publication has been submitted to the C.R. of Académie des Sciences de Paris.

CHENEVAL J. (1994) - Un oiseau (Aves, Anseriformes, Anatidae) du gisement du Messinien continental de Cherasco (Province de Cuneo, Piémont, Italie). Riv. piemont. Storia nat., Carmagnola, vol. 14, p. 23-32, 2 fig., 2 pl.
CHENEVAL J. & ADROVER R. (1995) - L'avifaune du Miocène supérieur d'Aljezar B (Los Aljezares, Province de Teruel, Espagne). Systématique et paléoécologie. Paleont. Evol., Barcelone-Sabadell, vol. 26-27, p. 133-144, 5 tabl., 1 pl.
FERRANDINI J. et SALOTTI M., avec la collaboration de S. BAILON, C. MOURER-CHAUVIRÉ et A.M. RÉAL-TESTUD (1995) - Découverte d'importants remplissages fossilifères d'âge Pléistocène supérieur et Holocène dans le karst de la région d'Oletta (Haute Corse). Geobios, 28 (1): 117-124.
LEFEVRE C. (1993-94) - Las aves en los yacimientos del Archipielago del Cabo de Hornos y del Seno Grandi. Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia, 22: 123-136.
MOURER-CHAUVIRÉ C. (1994) - L'Avifaune tardiglaciaire et holocène de Jean Pierre 1. In : Les grottes Jean Pierre 1 et 2 à Saint-Thibaud-de-Couz (Savoie) sous la direction de P. BINTZ. Première partie : Paléoenvironnement du Tardiglaciaire à l'Holocène dans les Alpes du Nord. Gallia-Préhistoire, 36: 210-218.
MOURER-CHAUVIRÉ C. (1995) - Le Garouillas et les sites contemporains (Oligocène, MP 25) des Phosphorites du Quercy (Lot, Tarn-et-Garonne, France) et leurs faunes de Vertébrés. 3. Oiseaux. Palaeontographica, Abt. A, 236: 33-38.
MOURER-CHAUVIRÉ C., BOUR R. et RIBES S. (1995) - Was the solitaire of Réunion an ibis ? Nature, 373 (6515): 568.
MOURER-CHAUVIRÉ C., BOUR R. et RIBES S. (1995) - Position systématique du Solitaire de la Réunion : nouvelle interprétation basée sur les restes fossiles et les récits des anciens voyageurs. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 320, sér. II a : 1125-1131.
SACCHI D., avec la participation de E. CRÉGUT-BONNOURE, C. HEINZ, O. LE GALL, M. MAUREL, J.L. VERNET & P. VILETTE (1994) - Un site paléolithique supérieur de moyenne altitude dans les Pyrénées : La Cauna de Belvis (France). Preistoria alpina, Trento, 28 (1992): 59-90.
VILETTE P. (1994) - La paléoavifaune du Pléistocène moyen de la Grotte du Lazaret (Nice, Alpes-Maritimes). Bull. Mus. Anthrop. préhist. Monaco, 36 : 15-29.
VILETTE P. (1995) - Le gisement paléolithique moyen de la grotte des Cèdres (Le Plan-d'Aups, Var), sous la direction d'A. DEFLEUR et E. CRÉGUT-BONNOURE. 4. 4. Les Oiseaux. Docum. Archéol. franç., 49 : 154-155.
VILETTE P. In DEFLEUR A., BEZ J.F., CRÉGUT-BONNOURE E., DESCLAUX E., ONORATINI G., RADULESCU C., THINON M., et VILETTE P. (1994) - Le Niveau moustérien de la Grotte de l'Adaouste (Jouques, Bouches-du-Rhône). Approche culturelle et paléoenvironnements. Bull. Mus. Anthrop. préhist. Monaco, n° 37, p. 11-48.


        N. I. BURCHAK-ABRAMOVICH sent the following report on the field of Paleornithology in Caucasus for 1994, but unfortunately, this report arrived too late for the last year Information Letter.
        In 1994 N. I. BURCHAK-ABRAMOVICH continued to study the Middle Pleistocene birds of Binagade, near Baku. In this work take part N. I. BURCHAK-ABRAMOVICH (general leader of the team), together with O. POTAPOVA (Snipes and Galliformes), A. PANTELEYEV (Passeriformes), D. BURCHAK-ABRAMOVICH (Paleoneurology), and Z. BOEV (Herons and Cranes). It is possible to join some Azerbaidjans scientists because Binagade is in the Azerbaidjan territory. The bones of fossil birds excavated in 1961 are studied because Nikolai left Baku when the excavations of Binagade were stopped. Now they can only dream to continue these excavations because of the economic difficulties of the country. The site of Binagade lies on an enormous surface, which now is still not fanced. The city of Baku becomes larger and larger and a very small part of the site is protected. Some of the field notes about 1961 excavations are preserved and they contain very valuable data about the taphonomy of the site. The results on Binagade Passeriform birds are very interesting. These new data were obtained by A. PANTELEYEV. He is going to describe a new subspecies of jay (Garrulus glandarius) and some other new forms of Passeriformes. A total of 108 bird species is established so far in Binagade. Among them are 4 extinct species and 4 extinct subspecies (Philomachus binagadensis Serebr., Leucogeranus bogatschevi Serebr., Anser azerbajdzanicus Serebr., Bubo binagadensis Burchak, Anas platyrhynchos palaeoboschas Serebr., Aythya marila asphaltica Serebr., Cygnus olor bergmanni Serebr., Pelecanus crispus palaeocrispus Serebr.) and it seems that there are some new fossil taxa.
        A total of 39 mammal species has been established for Binagade, 5 of them were new fossil species, 9 were new fossil subspecies. There are 2 species of reptiles, and one species of mollusc (Gastropoda: Pupilla frivola), 107 species of beetles, 7 of them were new fossil species, and 2 new fossil subspecies. The preliminary list of plants consists of 22 sepcies.
        A very elaborated description of the Oligoecene Pseudodontorn Caspiodontornis kobystanicus is completed. It is based on the cranium with mandible from Kobystan near Baku. The authors of this paper are S. M. ASLANOVA and N. I. BURCHAK-ABRAMOVICH. The authors intended to create a new fossil family, the Caspiodontornithidae, for the genus Caspiodontornis, but now they have rejected this plan because of the very complicated systematic questions. The questions about the systematic position of Caspiodontornis cannot be solved with the present conditions in Tbilissi and Baku.
        The comparative morphological studies of recent species of Haliaeetus, H. albicilla, H. pelagicus, H. leucoryphus, and the comparative morphological descriptions of Lyrurus mlokosiewiczi and L. tetrix, are postponed for a while, because of the technical difficulties in Georgia.
        The desciption of a new fossil species of goose, Anser n. sp. Burchak-Abramovich and Mtshadadze, based on the bones of the right wing with the prints of the primaries, and the description of an uncomplete skeleton of duck, Anas n. sp. Burchak-Abramovich and Mtshhadadze, are completed. The holotype of the duck is an uncomplete skeleton, without cranium, coming from the Lower Pliocene diatomites surrounding the village of Kisatibi, in Georgia. The diatomites of Kisatibi are very rich in fossil fishes and plants and a skeleton of Rana was found there. The skeleton of a small fossil tern, Sterna milnedwardsi Riab., and the new species of goose, will be described in another paper in the near future.
        The description of Gallus karabachensis, from the cave of Azik, the age of which is Middle Acheulean, was published by N. I. BURCHAK-ABRAMOVICH and ALIEV (1989, University of Baku). The holotype is a tibiotarsus. Several other fossil species of the genus Gallus are going to be described, in collaboration with O. POTAPOVA. These species are Gallus n. sp. from the Lower Pleistocene of the Taman faunal complex, which is a very large form ; Gallus n. sp. from Imeritia, the age of which is Upper Paleolithic, it is a small form ; Gallus n. sp. from the cave of Koudaro, in South Ossetia, Georgia, the holotype of which is a medium-sized ulna ; Gallus n. sp., from the Upper Paleolithic to the Mesolithic of Georgia, the holotype of which is a medium-sized coracoid.
        N. I. BURCHAK-ABRAMOVICH indicates that he does not have the book of collected papers in honor of P. Brodkorb. All the scientists in Georgia are in a very bad situation and he can only dream to have this book.


        The proceedings of the 3th SAPE symposium were published on the 14th of June 1995, in the Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, n° 181. The title is :

Dieter Stefan PETERS (Ed.)
Acta palaeornithologica
3. Symposium SAPE
5. Internationale Senckenberg-Konferenz 22.-26. Juni 1992
The content of the volume is given here. All the participants of the conference and the authors express all their gratitude to Dr. D. S. Peters.

Mesozoic birds and Early avian evolution

ZHOU ZHONGHE - The discovery of Early Cretaceous birds in China: 9-22
MARTIN L.D. - The Enantiornithes: Terrestrial birds of the Cretaceous: 23-36
ELZANOWSKI A. - Cretaceous birds and avian phylogeny: 37-53
CHIAPPE L. - The phylogenetic position of the Cretaceous birds of Argentina: Enantiornithes and Patagopteryx deferrariisi: 55-63
FEDUCCIA A. - The aerodynamic model for the evolution of feathers and feather misinterpretation: 65-77
KUROCHKIN E. N. - Morphological differentiation of palaeognathous and neognathous birds: 79-88

Tertiary birds

XUE XIANGXU - Qinornis paleocenica - A Paleocene bird discovered in China: 89-93
MOURER-CHAUVIRÉ C. - The Messelornithidae (Aves: Gruiformes) from the Paleogene of France: 95-105
PETERS D.S. - Idiornis tuberculata n. spec., ein weitere ungewöhnlicher Vogel aus der Grube Messel (Aves: Gruiformes: Cariamidae: Idiornithinae): 107-119
TAMBUSSI C. P. - The fossil Rheiformes from Argentina: 121-129
OLSON S.L. - Thiornis sociata NAVAS, a nearly complete miocene Grebe (Aves: Podicipedidae): 131-140
NORIEGA J.I. - The avifauna from the “Mesopotamian” (Ituzaingo Formation; Upper Miocene) of Entre Rios Province, Argentina: 141-148
ALVARENGA H.M.F. - A large and probably flightless Anhinga from the Miocene of Chile: 149-161
BOLES W.E. - A preliminary analysis of the Passeriformes from Riversleigh, Northwestern Queensland, Australia, with the description of a new species of Lyrebird: 163-170
HEIZMANN E.P.J. & HESSE A. - Die mittelmiozänen Vogel- und Säugetierfaunen des Nördlinger Ries (MN 6) und des Steinheimer Beckens (MN 7) - ein Vergleich : 171-185
CHENEVAL J. - A fossil Shearwater (Aves: Procellariiformes) from the Upper Oligocene of France and the Lower Miocene of Germany: 187-198
CAMPBELL K.E. Jr. - Additional specimens of the Giant Teratorn, Argentavis magnificens, from Argentina (Aves: Teratornithidae): 199-201
JANOSSY D. - A Late Miocene avifauna from Polgardi, western Hungary: 203-206

Quaternary birds

ALCOVER J. A. & McMINN M. - Fossil birds from the Canary Islands: 207-213
GARCIA i PETIT L. - Preliminary study of the Upper Pleistocene bird bone remains from l'Arbreda Cave (Catalonia): 215-227
HERNANDEZ F. & MORALES A. - Mid- and Late Iberian Holocene avifaunas: a global perspective: 229-239
BARYSHNIKOV G. & POTAPOVA O. - Pleistocene birds from the Acheulean site of Treugolnaya Cave in the Northern Caucasus: 241-248
BOCHENSKI Zy. - Early Holocene bird remains from Nemrik (N. Iraq): 249-257
BOEV Z. - Middle Villafranchian birds from Varshets (Western Balkan Range - Bulgaria): 259-269
MLIKOVSKY J. - Middle Pleistocene birds of Elaichoria 3, Greece: 271-273
TYRBERG T. - Palaeobiogeography of the genus Lagopus in the Western Palearctic: 275-291
WEBER E. & HESSE A. - The systematic position of Aptornis, a flightless bird from New Zealand: 293-301

Morphology and Taxonomy

HAFFER J. - Species versus phyletic lineages: 303-309
MLIKOVSKY J. - Nomenclatural and taxonomic status of fossil birds described by H. G. L. REICHENBACH in 1852: 311-316
CHINSAMY A. - Histological perspectives on growth in the birds Struthio camelus and Sagittarius serpentarius: 317-323
DZERZHINSKY F. Ya. - Evidence for the common ancestry of Galliformes and Anseriformes: 325-336
MIKHAILOV K.E. - The evolutionary implications of eggshell structure in falconiform and ciconiiform birds: 337-355
BOCHENSKI Z. & TOMEK T. - How many comparative skeletons do we need to iodentify a bird bone ?:357-361

Other references

STEPHAN B. (1995) - Die Bedeutung wissenschaftlicher Sammlungen am Beispiel der Urvogelforschung. Mauritiana, Altenburg, 2: 89-94.
STEPHAN B. (1995) - Strukturelle und funktionelle Besonderheiten des Handskeletts der Vögel. Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 71 (1995) Suppl.: Ann. Orn., 19: 27-41.


        Michael DANIELS sent the following information:

I have always been deeply concerned !or the future of the Naze locality it being so close to residential properties and its unstable cliffs in a constant state of active erosion. Conflicting interests have made its future a highly contentious issue and my campaigning to fend off any assault by the 'fix it at any price' fraternity has made me unpopular in certain circles. Stem the degree of land loss by all means has been my attitude, but don't wreck this brilliant geological treasure in so doing. Unfortunatelyt Britain is not now renowned for upholding democratic principles, more the emphasis is on materialism and vested interests. Thus early this year despite strong counter arguments, even from authoritative departments of the national government as to the 'worthwhileness' of the local anti-erosion scheme, politics and uninformed public clamour won through with the plans getting the go-ahead. Fortunately, hot on the heels of this retrograde decision came salvation as the country went to the polls for local governement elections. Suddenly the minority group of councillors who had vainly argued against the plans of their scheming colleagues, became the dominant faction. As I now understand the situation, no work will proceed as other more pressing needs take priority for diminishing finance.

The extreme dryness and hot weather affecting the U.K., apparently similarly experienced all across the Northern Hemisphere, has meant sea temperature rises around our coasts and has encouraged the growth of weed on shorelines. Further, without strong winds, with weeks of balmy days, sand has accumulated on the normally exposed muds and the London Clay of the Naze has been all but obscured.

Up until late spring, collecting had produced average Naze success, twelve birds having been acquired and on one memorable day in winter, five individuals. Since we reported last year, notable birds have included yet another swift, a palaeognath. I have been able to move pigeons into my 'confident' category when previously, my own and others equivocation cast doubt on quite an extensive bird obtained in 1975! More birds may be attached to the 'archaeotrogonidae'...not trogons, but some form of Caprimulgid Zygodactylidae, with confusing mosaic osteology, including passer and coly features, are frequent Naze forms. Within this group another acquisition was the first of the type to have soft parts preserved. Previously, all in respect of horny soles of the feet* had included 'parrots', 'Primobucco' olsoni, this a cuckoo/owl mosaic, owl-like birds and several motmot-like ?Coraciiformes. With one other in the collection, Olson's Prefica, ? a steatornithid, has Naze representation. The latest acquisition shows enough variation to attract at least genus separation. It has extremely light-weight bones. A repeat of a small woodrail-like bird, the first found by Storrs in 1985, was proved by the discovery of a distal tarsus similar to
the complete original example.

The collaborative investigations here in late 1994 by Storrs Olson, Cécile Mourer-Chauviré and myself produced determinations of several birds that had defied any confident classification. A largish bird producing extensive data was considered to be a bustard, another, smaller, a jacana. An exceptionally 'provocative' tarsus hitherto considered by various authorities, to be an owl, a parrot, a pelecaniform, was believed to be ancestral to the ospreys. My notes mention a possible trumpeter.

In the contribution made by Storrs Olson and myself to last year's newsletter, there was mention of a quail-like distal tarsus that had been described by Harrison and Walker in 1977. Due to some degree of lucky mischance I have, since the report, been able to shed better light on this individuals phylogeny. A rather extraordinary story it makes. I have found the bird, unfortunately now vested with the inference weighted nomen Coturnipes, has larger relatives, much larger, and further, siblings of similar size.
Pectoral girdle remains of a bird obtained in 1986 produced the usual confusion concerning affinities, a possible owl or even a skua. Re-examining the scapula of the important specimen WN.91696, the skull and lower leg etc., which I illustrated for SAPE 1992, I knew its shape recalled that of another elsewhere in the collection and a search located this as the '86 bird WN.86549. Storrs had tentatively viewed this as a falconid, even Parvigyps, but of course there was no leg remains to help produce anything conclusive. In 1993, two intriguing specimens made their appearance in quick succession from well separated regions of the Naze. Much alike both in size and type, the last obtained WN.93780A composed of wing and pectoral remains, possessed a scapula of individual had a vital role to play. Though missing in WN.93777, other bones confirmed the relationship of the two birds and it was the latter that preserved the tarsometatarsi viewed as counterparts of Coturnipes. Back to the scapula; its form was clearly reminiscent of others elsewhere in the collection, but my system for locating similar elements using size coding was not helping. Then due to good fortune when examining material, recent memory came to my assistance and lead to my discovering by the shape of this one bone I had, in fact, two small birds that compared remarkably well with two, greatly larger in size. One of the latter happens to be the most evocative bird WN.91696. Study by both Storrs Olson and Cecile Mourer-Chauviré convinced them of its phorusrhacid affinities. Further examination by myself and recently having the views of Mr. Jolyon Parish assisted by the beautiful illustrative work of Bruce Horsfall (Patagonian Expeditions Vol. VII) of Phororhacos and Pelecyornis, has left little room for doubt about the identity of the fossils.
To be able to attach two small quail size birds to a group where one's imagination immediately runs to think of five foot tall fearsome predators, the whole story may appear somewhat incredible, but then the Naze and its amazing relics often seem to confound normal reasoning.

*Interestingly, the tubercles are preserved in pyrite, Naze birds not usually so and since the living substance is keratin, one wonders whether this material is subject to some form of mineralogical replacement. I have never come across bill sheaths, but probably leg scales once.

Michael Daniels

29th August 1995.

Walton on the Naze

        A seaside produced in early Victorian times. The Naze cliffs are seen across the bay, but those in the foreground are also composed of London Clay and the foreshore hereabouts has also produced fossil bird remains.


An artist's idealized view of the Naze cliffline with phorusrhacid bird on the shore. It is most unlikely such a scene may ever have existed, but the readers of the local newspaper seemed happy with the picture which accompanied a recent article.
          Drawing by the late Simon SHANNON

        David UNWIN's “Aves”, one of more than 40 contributions to the “Fossil Record II” (edited by M. J. BENTON and published by Chapman and Hall) finally appeared in late 1993. This publication contains a complete listing of the stratigraphic distribution of all families of birds (fossil and extant), with first and last occurrences, range charts, etc. As a result of the current high rate of publication on fossil birds the chapter is rapidly dating, but it should have currency for at least another year or two. Production of an updated version is under consideration.
        Progress on studies of the completedness and reliability of the avian fossil record (preliminary results of which were presented at the S.A.P.E. meeting in Frankfurt) ground to halt during the last year largely as a result of commitments elsewhere. Fortunately David has been able to obtain funds to support a research assistant (Eliza ROSS) for ten weeks during the summer of 1994. Eliza will begin updating the original listing published in the Fossil Record II and will then carry out a detailed analysis of the data. Results of this work will be presented at the Symposium for Vertebrate Paleontology and Comparative Anatomy (Le Havre, Sept. 1994) and will be submitted for publication at about the same time.


        Denes JANOSSY is very sorry but he will not be able to attend the next SAPE meeting in Washington, mainly because his state of health. He is working now on the elaboration of arrears in the formerly collected Lower Pleistocene small mammals of Southern Hungary (Villany Hills), where birds appear only occasionally. He has published a paper on subfossil birds from Greece and Turkey and will be happy in the future, to receive reprints on fossil birds.

JANOSSY D. (1994) - Subfossil bird-faunas from Greece and Turkey. Aquila, 101: 45-52.


Pier Franceso CASSOLI send the list of his publications on fossil birds

BIDDITTU I., CASSOLI P.F. & MALPIERI L. (1967 - Stazione musteriana in Val Radice nel comune di Sora (Frosinone). Quaternaria : 321-348.
BIDDITTU I. & CASSOLI P.F. (1969) - Una stazione del Paleolitici inferiore a Pontecorvo in Provincia di Frosinone. Quaternaria, 10 : 167-197.
CASSOLI P. F (1972) - Lo pteroclide (Aves, Pteroclidae) fossile nei livelli del Paleolitico superiore e medio nel Pleiostoceno dell'Italia meridionale. Quaternaria, 16 : 225-245.
CASSOLI P.F. (1974) - La fauna della tomba di “Su Crocifissu Mannu”. B. P. I., 81 : 210-218.
CASSOLI P. F. & DURANTES (1974) - La fauna del Ti-n-Torka (Acacus, Libia). Origini, VIII, Roma.
CASSOLI P. F, SEGRE A.G. & SEGRE E. (1976-77) - Upper Paleolithic fauna at Palidoro (Rome): 1955 excavations. Quaternaria, 19 : 187-196.
CASSOLI P. F, SEGRE A.G. & SEGRE E. (1977) - Evolution morphologique et écologique de la côte de Castro (Pouilles) dans le Pléistocène final. Coll. intern. CNRS, La fin des temps glaciaires en Europe, CRNS édit., Paris, n° 271: 325-332.
CASSOLI P. F (1977 - L'avifauna di Shahr-i-Sokta in Iran. In : La citta bruciata del deserto salato. Erizzo ed. : 173-182.
CASSOLI P. F (1978) - L'avifauna pre-würmiana di Torre in Pietra. Quaternaria, 20 : 429-440.
CASSOLI P. F (1980) - L'avifauna del Pleistoceno superiore delle Arene Candide (Liguria). Memorie Ist. Ital. Paleont. Umana, N.S. 3 : 48-58.
CASSOLI P. F & TAGLIACOZZO A. (1982) - La fauna della grotta di Cala dei Genovesi a Levanzo. Revista Scienze Preistoriche, XXXVII : 48-58.
CASSOLI P. F (1982) - Giacimento del Paleolitico inferiore a Malagrotta (Roma). Atti XXIII Riunione Scientifica I. I. P. P., Firenze : 532-549.
CASSOLI P. F (1983) - Identification of the bird bones. Appendix G: The fauna from Hasanlu period x at Hajji Firun. In : The Noelithic Settlement Hasanlu Excava : 371-409.
SEGRE A.G., BIDDITTU I. & CASSOLI P. F (1984) - Il Bacino paleolacustre di Sora (FR) e i suoi giacimenti musteriani. Atti XXIV Riunione scientifica I. I. P. P. nel Lazio : 149.
CASSOLI P. F & SEGRE A.G. (1985) - L'Alca impenne (Alca impennis) del Pleistocene d'Italia. The Great Auk in the Italian Pleistocene. Atti 3° Convegno italiano di Ornitologia : 251-254.
CASSOLI P. F & SALA B (1985) - Il significato e l'utilizzazione dei dati forniti dai reperti faunistici in Preistoria. I primi abitanti d'Europa. De Luca Ed.: 107-110.
CASSOLI P. F & TAGLIACOZZO A. (1986) - La fauna dell'insediamento neolitico di Scamuso (Bari). Rivista di Antropologia, LXIV : 85-99.
SEGRE G.A. & CASSOLI P. F (1987) - Giacimento preistorico del Pleistocene medio e superiore della grotta di S. Croce, Bisceglie (Bari). Atti XXV Riunione scientifica I. I. P. P. : 111-118.
TAGLIACOZZO A., CASSOLI P.F. & SCALI S. (1989) - La fauna di Grotta Cardini, In La Grotta Cardini (Praia a Mare, Cosenza) : Giacimento del Bronzo. Memorie Ist. ital. Palont. Umana, N. 4 : 213-257.
CASSOLI P. F & TAGLIACOZZO A. (1991) - La fauna degli scavi 1983-1986 a Santorso, Vicenza (Eta del Ferro). Preistoria alpina, 25 (1989) : 165-216.
BELLI G., BELLUOMINI G., CASSOLI P. F, CECCHI S., CUCARZI M., DELITALA M., FORNACIARI G., MALLEGNI F., PPIPERNO M., SEGRE A.G., SEGRE NALDINI E. (1991) - Découverte d'un fémur humain acheuléen à Notarchirico (Venosa, Basilicate). L'Anthropologie, 25 (1) : 47-88.
CASSOLI P. F (1992) - Avifauna del Pleisotcene superiore delle Arene Candide, Praia e Grotta Romanelli (Italia). Quaternaria Nova, II : 239-246.
CAPASSO BARBATO L., CASSOLI P. F, MINIERI M. R., PETRONIO C., SARDELLA F., SCARANO M. (1992) - Note preliminare sulla fauna pleistocenica di Ingarano (Apricena, Foggia). Boll. Soc. Paleont. ital., 31 : 325-334.
CASSOLI P. F & TAGLIACOZZO A. (1992) - Le faune (Mammiferi e Ucelli). In : BARTOLOMEI G., BROGLIO A., CASSOLI P., CREMASCHI M. , GIACOBINI G., MALERBA G., MASPERO A., PERESANI M., TAGLIACOZZO A. - Risultati preliminari delle nuove ricerche al Riparo di Fumane. L'Annuario storico della Valpolicella, 1991-1992, 1992-1993 : 9-64.
CASSOLI P. F & TAGLIACOZZO A. (1992) - Abri Soman : la macrofaune. In : A. BROGLIO & A. GUERRESCHI - Colloque international. Adaptations au milieu montagnard au Paléolithique supérieur et au Mésolithique. Livret-Guide des excursions, Trento, 28-30.
CASSOLI P. F & TAGLIACOZZO A. (1992 - Grotte-abri de Fumane : analyse faunistique : mammifères et oiseaux. In : A. BROGLIO & A. GUERRESCHI - Colloque international. Adaptations au milieu montagnard au Paléolithique supérieur et au Mésolithique. Livret-Guide des excursions, Trento, 37-40.
CASSOLI P. F & TAGLIACOZZO A. (1993) - “La Marmotta”, Anguillara Sabazia (RM) : Scavi 1989 : Analisi preliminare delle faune. Bull. Paletnol. ital., 84, ns II : 323-337.
CASSOLI P. F (1993) - La determinazione dell'Avifauna. In : AAVV, Il Giglio e la Rosa, Ceramiche Farnesiane di Scavo dalla Rocca di Valentano, cat. mostra : 92-93.
CASSOLI P. F & TAGLIACOZZO A. (1994) - Considerazioni paleontologiche, paleoecologiche e archeozoologiche sui macromammiferi e gli uccelli dei livelli del Pleistocene superiore del Riparo di Fumane (VR) scavi 1988-91. Boll. Museo Civico Storia natur. Verona, 18 (1991) : 349-445.
CASSOLI P. F & TAGLIACOZZO A. (1994) - Analyse faunistique : macromammifères et oiseaux. In : BARTOLOMEI G., BROGLIO A., CASSOLI P. F., CASTELLETTI L., CATTANI L., CREMASCHI M., GIACOBINI G., MALERBA G., MASPERO A., PERESANI M., SARTORELLI A. & TAGLIACOZZO A. - La Grotte de Fumane, un site aurignacien au pied des Alpes. Preistoria alpina, 28 (1992) : 137-148.
CASSOLI P. F & TAGLIACOZZO A. (1994) - La macrofaune de l'Abri Soman (Val d'Adige - Italie). Preistoria alpina, 28 (1992) : 181-192.
CASSOLI P. F & TAGLIACOZZO A. (1994) - I resti ossei di macromammiferi, uccelli e pesci della Grotta Maggiore di S. Bernardino sui Colli Berici (VI). Considerazioni paleoeconomiche, paleoecologiche e cronologiche. Bull. Paletnol. ital., 85, n. s. III : 1-71.


        Alan R. PHILLIPS indicates that Diana G. MATTHIESEN is now working on his Recent bird bones from the Valley of Mexico. He urges the SAPE members to consider, during their 1996 meeting, a conference on the most logical evolutionary sequence of bird families, based on facts, not chemical errors.


        Zygmunt BOCHENSKI, besides actualizing his popular book on fossil birds, prepared three papers concerning recent birds (two of them are in press).
        Zbigniew M. BOCHENSKI came back from Zurich after a nine month scholarship. In Switzerland he carried out SEM studies on the damage to bird bones exposed to weathering and digested by raptors.
        Teresa TOMEK, together with Zbigniew, identified a part of bird remains from the locality “Oblazowa 1” (Upper Pleniglacial of the Vistulian to the Holocene), which, together with a little older material from “Oblazowa 2”, illustrates changes in the bird fauna of the Sub-Tatra region during the last 33 000 years. The most interesting results include the finding of Montifringilla nivalis in the Pleniglacial deposits, and of Lagopus mutus in various layers (up to the Holocene). Teresa presented the results during a symposium concerning the excavations in Oblazowa Mt. The paper has been submitted to the proceedings.
        The comparative collection of the recent bird skeletons stored at the Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals, Pol. Acad. Sci., in Krakow, has been enlarged by about three dozens of new bird species, mainly South Amercian ones. It contains now the complete skeletons of 955 bird species, representing 114 bird families (60 of them in series of 10 or more specimens); another 19 species are represented by incomplete skeletons. The exchange of specimens is highly appreciated. Everybody interested in the exchange is kindly requested to get in touch with Zygmunt BOCHENSKI.

BOCHENSKI Z. and TOMEK T. (1994) - Fossil and subfossil bird remains from five Austrian caves. Acta zool. cracov., 37 (1): 347-358.
BOCHENSKI Z. M. (1994) - The comparative osteology of grebes (Aves: Podicipediformes) and its systematic implications. Acta zool. cracov., 37 (1): 191-346
BOCHENSKI Z.M. and TOMEK T. (1994) - Pattern of bird bone fragmentation in pellets of the Long-eared Owl Asio otus and its taphonomic implications. Acta zool. cracov., 37 (1): 177-190.
TOMEK T. and BOCHENSKI Z. M. (in press) - Changes of the bird fauna in the Oblazowa region within the last 33 thousand years.


        Eugen KESSLER, together with his new colleagues Erika GAL and Attila SANDOR, students, determined fossil and subfossil remains from several Miocene (Kishinew, Credinta, Ciobanita), Pleistocene (Emirkaya-2, Turkey; Malta; Grotta Romanelli, Italy, Hungarian and Romanian remains) and Holocene sites (Hârsova, Bordusani, Cheile Turzii, etc...) Some of the remains belong to new taxa.
        They participated to some symposiums and conferences in Romania (Cluj-Napoca, Bucarest), and abroad (Biejing, VI. MTE Meeting, 1-5 August 1995), and Eugen and Erika will take part to the ICAZ Bird Group second meeting in Southampton, to present the Romanian archeozoological bird remains.
        E. KESSLER was in February 1995 at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, and thanks Storrs OLSON and Helen JAMES. Eugen, Erika and Attila are waiting for Luis CHIAPPE, who is coming to Romania to study the Lower Cretaceous birds from Cornet in Oradea and Bucharest.

KESSLER E. (1989-93) - The presence of gallinaceous species (Ord. Galliformes, Cl. Aves) in the archeaological sites of Romania. Acta Musei Napocensis, Cluj-Napoca, 26-30 : 205-220 (in Romanian).
KESSLER E. (1992) - Review of the Neogene waterfowl (Aves: Anatidae) of Eastern Parathethys. Studia Univ. Babes-Bolyai, Biologie, 37 (2) : 47-54.
KESSLER E. & GAL E. (1995) - The fossil and subfossil bird fauna of the karst from Cheile Turzii. Spec. Vol. XIII Symp. of Theoretical and Applied Karstology, Cluj-Napoca : 31.
KESSLER E. & GAL E. (1995) - A new theory concerning the origin and evolution of birds. Spec. Vol. Sixth Symp. on MTEB, Short papers, Beijing : 215-216.
KESSLER E. & GAL E. (1995) - New contribution for the Sarmatian bird fauna of Parathethys. Romanian Journ. Stratigr., Xth Congr. Reg. Comm. Mediterr. Neogene Stratigr., 1 : 53.


        Felix Ya. DZERZHINSKY, together with his pupil Urana S. KUULAR, has reached an interpretation of the jaw apparatus in Aramus, as adapted not for agile catching but to rather complicated handling of food items between the tips of bill. It resulted in some unique features in the jaw muscles arrangement indicating an alternative method of bill operating as compared with that of other gruiform birds.
        Some rallids among their objects, especially Amaurornis phoenicurus, show rather rare characters which are perhaps associated with the known bilateral compression of the skull. Those are as follows : First, the maxillary tomia form the anterior continuation of the palatines, not of the jugal bars ; these are remarkably displaced dorsally. Second, the orbital process of the quadrate is situated unusually lateral and projects entirely anteriorly, not according to the orientation of the pterygoid bone.
        They finally decided that the specific features of the Buttonbird skull (such as fusion of the postorbital and zygomatic processes and even aegithognathy) may easily represent the consequences of body microminiaturization. In this case, they have no good arguments for separating Turnicidae from Gruiformes.
        They have publicated two rather large papers in form of deposition in their Institute of Scientific and Technical Information (called VINITI) with publication of summaries in Referativny Journal (i. e. Biological Abstracts). The edition of the Journal send copies of deposited papers if requested. The titles are indicated in the references section.

        In the beginning of 1995, E. KUROCHKIN spent 3 months in the University of Bristol, where the Department of Geology (M. Benton, D. Unwin and others) has a joint palaeontological program with the Palaeontological Institute of Moscow, supported by the Royal Society. Most of the time he was occupied by the preparation of papers on Mesozoic birds in English. Some of them are going to be published this year and the other were submitted somewhere. He had the possibility to visit several times the Natural History Museum in London, and to work on the famous London specimen of Archaeopteryx, the problematic remains of the Cretaceous Romanian Elopteryx (Dinosauria), and the British Wyleya (Aves) and Enaliornis (not Hesperornithiform).
        In the beginning of August he participated to the Sixth Symposium on the Mesozoic Terrestrial Ecosystems, in Beijing, China. The acquaintance with the new mesozoic Chinese birds, among which the Jurassic Confuciusornis and the Early Cretaceous neornithine bird gave him the most outstanding impression, besides of some new enantiornithines, was the most important result of his visit. Obviously, at the present time, the Mesozoic of China represent the most important and diversified record to study the evolution of early birds. These data confirm the hypothesis on a very early (at least pre-Cretaceous) radiation of some principal lineages in the evolution of the class Aves. The discussions and meetings with the colleagues L. HOU, Z. ZHOU, L. MARTIN and L. CHIAPPE, were very productive and successful. The hospitality of Chinese colleagues and their financial support for his stay in Beijing were fundamental.

        A. KARHU, jointly with A. RAUTIAN, has completed a paper on a new maniraptoran dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous of South Mongolia (submitted to Paleontologichesky Journal, Moscow). This very small and lightly built new species shares some characters with Mononykus, coming from another Upper Cretaceous locality of South Mongolia and which formerly assigned to a new family. Analysis of the anatomical details in the tarsometatarsus reveals that none of the actometatarsalian theropods, and Mononykus in particular, could be a member of the evolutionary lineage ancestral to any group of birds in the traditional understanding. At the present time A. KARHU is occupied by the study of a new genus of Jungornithidae (Apodiformes) from the Late Eocene of North Caucasus, and a new species of Urmiornis (Ergilornithidae) from the Early Miocene/Late Oligocene of West Kazakhstan. In connection with the analysis of the earliest known representative of Urmiornis, the arguments in favor of the generic independance of Urmiornis and Amphipelargus have been obtained. Some other new materials on Paleogene and Neogene birds from Kazakhstan and Mongolia are also under examination.

        Konstantin MIKHAILOV has continued his work on the SEM-Atlas of avian eggshells, monograph concerned with the review of fossil eggs and their shells at the World scale, and some papers addressed to the phylogenetic implications of avian eggshell structure. His research projects include also the studying of various aspects of the specific diversification and the survey of avian biodiversity in the Ussuriland, Russian Far East.

        Olga POTAPOVA has worked during the recent time on the bird material from the cave Boshoi Glukhoi, in Ural. The further studying and completing of the work in 1995 and 1996 will be supported by a grant of the Department of General Biology, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow, offering to the winners 1 million roubles (= 250 US $). Besides, she is completing the paper for “Acta zoologica cracoviensia” submitted to the last Ornithological Congress in Vienna.
        An other paper on the Late Holocene bird assemblage of a settlement near Obdorsk city (Ob' River mouth, Eastern Siberia) is submitted to the Russian Ornithological Journal, together with Andrei PANTELEYEV (in Russian, with extended English summary).
        In June, she had the chance to compare some Middle Paleolithic bird remains from Caucasus and Crimea Peninsula with these on some famous French sites, due to the kind help of Dr. C. Mourer-Chauviré in Lyon, and to clear some questions with identifications.

KARHU A. A. (1994) - The Early Miocene finding of Urmiornis and some notes on the composition of the family Ergilornithidae (Gruiformes). Oligocene-Miocene transition in the Northern Hemisphere. Abstracts. Kazakhstan: Almaati : 10-11
KUROCHKIN E. N. (1991) - Peter Simon Pallas and his time. Bull. Moscow Society of Naturalists, 99 (3): 117-124 (in Russian).
KUROCHKIN E. N. (1994) - Current Ornithology, 11. Review. New books abroad. Biology, 2 : 87-89 (in Russian).
KUROCHKIN E. N. (1994) - Editor-in-Chief. Modern Ornithology, 1992. Moscow: Publishing House Nauka: 264 pp. (in Russian).
KUROCHKIN E. N. (1994) - From history of the ornithology, pt. 4. Almanac “Singing and ornamental birds”, 4 : 46-48. Moscow: Kolos. (in Russian).
KUROCHKIN E. N. (1994) - Synopsis on Mesozoic Birds and Early Evolution of class Aves. Journ. für Ornith., 135 (3): 332.
KUROCHKIN E. N. (1995) - Synopsis of Mesozoic birds and early evolution of Class Aves. Archaeopteryx, Munchen, 13: 47-66.
KUROCHKIN E. N. (1995) - The assemblages of the Cretaceous birds in Asia. Sixth Symp. Mesozoic Terrestrial Ecosystems and Biota, Short papers, A. SUN and Y. WANG (Eds.), China Ocean Press : 203-208.
KUROCHKIN E. N., VICKERS-RICH P. & ROZANOV A. Yu. (1995) - A very large fossil collection - Bacteria, Dinosaurs and Giant Rhinos. Dinonews, 8: 19-22.
KUULAR U. S. & DZERZHINSKY F. Ya. (1994) - Trophical adaptations of cranes (Gruidae) as seen from the comparative and functional morphology of the jaw apparatus. Moscow Univ., Moscow, 62 p. Deposited in VINITI, n° 2904. (in Russian).
KUULAR U. S. & DZERZHINSKY F. Ya. (1995) - Adaptations of the jaw apparatus in the Trumpeter (Psophia leucoptera). On the question of the evolution and relations of gruiform birds. Moscow Univ., Moscow, 32 p. Deposited in VINITI, n° 384-W95. (in Russian).
MIKHAILOV K.E. (1994) - Higher taxonomic categories in birds: an investigation based on eggshell structure. Journ. für Ornithologie, 135 (3) : 319.
MIKHAILOV K.E. (1994) - The principles of the organization of the amniotic eggshell as a biogenic formation. Zhurnal Obschey biologii (J. of General Biology), Moscow, 55 (4-5) : 535-547 (Russian, English summary).
MIKHAILOV K.E. (1995) - Systematic, faunistic and stratigraphic diversity of Cretaceous eggs in Mongolia: comparison with China. Sixth Symp. Mesozoic Terrestrial Ecosystems and Biota, Short papers, A. SUN and Y. WANG (Eds.), China Ocean Press : 165-168.
MIKHAILOV K.E. (1995) - Eggshell structure in the Shoebill and pelecaniform birds: comparison with Hamerkop, herons, ibises, and storks. Canadian Journ. Zool.
TATARINOV L.P., TROFIMOV B.A., KUROCHKIN E. N. et al. (1994) - Valery Jurlevitch Reshetov (1946-1993). Paleont. Journ., 1: 140-141 (in Russian).


        During the last year Lluis GARCIA PETIT finished his study of the bird remains from La Bora Gran. He presented his results at the meeting of the UISPP Commission VIII, on the Mediterranean World after the Pleniglacial. It is interesting to underline that 46 % of the remains correspond to the Great Bustard and many of them include cut marks. The site is dated in the 12th millenium BP and was excavated at the beginning of this century.
        He also studied the scarce bird remains from the following Catalan archaeological sites: La Font Voltada Cave (Upper Paleolithic), Els Gafols, Illa d'en Reixac (Iberian period), Sant Joan / Sant Josep (17th century).
        Together with Professor N. Soler, he presented a paper at the X International Meeting of Archaeology in Puigcerda, on an ulna of a little Corvidae (Pyrrhocorax or Corvus monedula) which was elaborated to what could be a whistle. This paleolithical object was discovered on the site of Davant Pau (Serinya, Catalan Lands).
        Furthermore, he has undertaken the research on the bird remains from the protohistorical and historical site of Lattes (France). The town was placed at the Mediterranean Sea, in a marshy region, so it is not surprising that most of the remains correspond to different species of Anatidae. There are also rests of marine birds, such as the cormorant, some of which present cut marks.

        J. C. RANDO and his students have been working on volcanic caves of Tenerife and El Hierro islands. They have found several paleontological sites where the birds are an important part of the bones assemblages. In these sites they found different local extinctions, extinctions of species from several islands, and new fossil records from Canary islands. On the other hand, they continued working on bones from the fossil dunes of Fuerteventura, and on materials from archaeological sites of La Palma, El Hierro and Fuerteventura islands.
        All these works have provided new data on avian paleobiogeography and help them to understand the present distribution and situation of some birds in the archipelago, and also brought data on causes and timing of the Canarian bird extinctions.
        Bartomeu SEGUI CAMPANER began working in Paleornithology at the beginning of the year. He has just finished an excavation in Cova des Moro, with J. A. ALCOVER. Over a dozen of Myotragus balearicus skulls have been discovered, but just a few bird remains (Columba, Pyrrhocorax, and a few small passerines). In December they will work there again. In August they are excavating in Menorca, near Punto Nati. They don't think the cave will be a good paleornithological deposit, but at the cliffs there is an interesting miocene site which has delivered very interesting bird bones.
        Now Bartomeu is going to revise some unpublished material that J. A. ALCOVER collected in Cova de Muleta. It seems to be one of the most important Upper Pleistocene paleornithological deposits in Mallorca. He hopes that the publication will come out before the end of the year.

        In February Francisco HERNANDEZ went to the United Arab Emirates to collect birds (with Arturo MORALES). The rest of the year he has been trying to finish his thesis not very successfully. By the way, he has changed the subject of it, and now it will be something about the role of birds in a paleoenvironmental reconstruction and its application to the Quaternary of Southern Spain. In September-October he will be in Bergen (Norway) in the Museum of Zoology, to study bird bones sites.

CANTOS F.J., FERNANDEZ A. & HERNANDEZ F. (1993) - Evolucion y algunos parametros de la poblacion invernante de la Gaviota reidora Larus ridibundus en Madrid. Butll. GCA, 10: 25-31.
HERNANDEZ F. (1994) - Addenda al catalogo provisional de yacimientos con aves del Cuaternario de la Peninsula Iberica. Archaeofauna, 3: 77-92.
HERNANDEZ F. (1994) - La avifauna no passeriforme de Laminak II. Kobie, XXI: 189-202.
HERNANDEZ F. & JONSSON L. - Las Aves. In : ROSELLO E. & MORALES A. (Eds.) - Castillo de Dona Blanca. Archaeo-environmental investigations in the Bay of Cadiz (S. Spain, 750-500 B.C.). British Archaeological Reports, int. ser. 593: 81-90.
MORALES A., CHAMORRO J., MORENO R., ROSELLO E., CEREIJO M.A., HERNANDEZ F., LIESAU C., JONSSON L., GARCIA J.A. & BRÄNNSTRÖM P. - The biological evidence in a wider context. In : ROSELLO E. & MORALES A. (Eds.) - Castillo de Dona Blanca. Archaeo-environmental investigations in the Bay of Cadiz (S. Spain, 750-500 B.C.). British Archaeological Reports, int. ser. 593: 201-217.
RANDO J.C. & PERERA M.A. (1994) - Primeros datos de ornitofagia entre los aborigenes de Fuerteventura (Islas Canarias). Archaeofauna, 3: 13-19.
RANDO J. C. (in press) - Presencia de restos de pigargo (Haliaeetus sp.) (Aves: Accipitridae) en yacimientos paleontologicos de Fuerteventura. Vieraea, 24.
RANDO J.C. (in press) - Restos de Hubara (Chlamydotis undulata) (Aves: Otididae) en la Cueva del Viento (Tenerife, Islas Canarias). Vieraea, 24.


        Tommy TYRBERG indicates that his work on his catalogue of Pleistocene birds is progressing satisfactorily. The site list (1355 sites in 56 countries) and the section on dating and stratigraphy are complete and he is now working on the systematic (species-by-species) list, which is rather time-consuming since there is a lot of more or less questionable determinations to consider. One thing which has struck him during this work is how remarkably complete the Late Pleistocene avian record is in the West Palearctic. With the exception of a few groups where species are probably not osteologically separable (e. g. some warblers) virtually every extant species has a fossil record. Exceptions are so rare that he is inclined to believe that species which lack a Late Pleistocene record (e. g. Limosa lapponica, Perisoreus infaustus) were actually absent from the West Palearctic.
        Otherwise the paper on the first fossil record of Catharacta skua, which he mentioned in his previous record, is due to appear this autumn in Bulletin of the British Ornithological Club and together with Per ERICSON and Lars JONSSON, he recently finished a paper about the oldest north-european record of the House Sparrow (Apalle in Eastern Sweden, Bronze Age).


Gunnison, Colorado

        Dr. Steve EMSLIE has spent the past year as the Thornton Visiting Scholar at Western State College where he has been teaching classes in ecology, conservation biology, ornithology, and environmental science. He also has continued his research on fossil birds with a new NSF grant awarded to investigate Plio/Pleistocene avian extinctions in Florida. This research will include assistance of two undergraduate students at Western State who will help Steve complete additional field and museum work in Florida this fall.
        In December 1994, Steve continued field work at Haile 7C, an early Pleistocene sinkhole deposit in central Florida, as a part of this new grant. This excavation resulted in the recovery of two complete bones of an undescribed species of condor which appears to be slightly larger and more robust than other condors described from North America. Meanwhile Steve's research on the late Pliocene fossil cormorants from Richardson Road Shell Pit, reported in the last newsletter, is nearly complete. A paper on the taphonomy of the site, co-authored with Warren ALLMON, Fred RICH, John WRENN, and Susan de FRANCE, was completed and currently is under review.
        For the next year, Steve can be reached at: Western State College, Department of Sciences, Gunnison, CO 81231. E-mail:


        The University of Kansas welcomes Zhonghe ZHOU to its Ph. D. Program. Zhonghe will work on the Early Cretaceous birds of China. Prof. HOU, Zhonghe, Larry MARTIN and Alan FEDUCCIA have been working on a Late Jurassic bird, Confuciusornis, from China. Confuciusornis is like Gobipteryx in having lost its teeth but the postcranial skeleton is very much like Archaeopteryx. The tail and shoulder girdle are still unknown, but they think that they would be advanced over the condition in Archaeopteryx. Prof. HOU, Zhonghe, and Larry are also working on the pelvis in Mesozoic birds. Larry joined Chris BENNETT and a host of others to look for Jurassic birds in Montana. Many fishes and insects were found but no birds yet. Larry has started a three dimensional reconstruction of the skeleton of Ichthyornis victor. Practically everything is available except the skull.

Lookout Mountain, Georgia

        Dr. Phil MILLENER, formerly Curator of Fossil Birds at the Museum of New Zealand, Wellington, has taken up residence in Georgia, U.S.A. Here he has become actively involved in the Chattanooga Chapter of the Tennessee Ornithological Society and has introduced members to his ongoing research interests on New Zealand Holocene fossil birds, especially those from the Chatham Islands, where he has conducted an extensive program of field work from 1988-1993. He has written a chapter, giving a general account of the fossil bird history of the Chatham Islands, to be included in “ A Chatham Islands Guidebook”, a publication by the NZ Department of Conservation, due out in 1995. Most recently he has been working with colleagues of the Division of Birds, especially Curator Emeritus, Dr. Richard L. ZUSI, at the Smithsonian Institution (National Museum of Natural History), finishing off anatomical comparisons for the forthcoming description of a new (extinct) species of Tadorna (Aves: Anseriformes). Further study of this rich Chatham material (from which C-14 dates going back to c. 7000 yrs B.P. have been obtained) is planned, with the intention of describing several more new, endemic extinct species (all extirpated by the indigenous Moriori some 300 years ago) - among them a merganser (Mergus), a teal (Anas), a parrot (Nestor), and a Crested penguin (Eudyptes).

Los Angeles

        At the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, a new President and Director, Dr. James L. Powell, arrived in July 1994 to replace Dr. Craig Black, who retired shortly before. A new Deputy of Research and Collections, Dr. Todd Steussey, arrived in September 1995 to replace Dr. Dan Cohen, who retired shortly before. Ken CAMPBELL reports a very busy and hectic year both in and out of the Museum. The instability in Paleontology at the Museum continued, but in a reverse direction as four of those alid off from their positions in August 1993 were reinstated to their positions in December 1994. Ken continued as Section Head of Vertebrate Paleontology/Rancho La Brea until August 1995, when Chief Curator John Harris assumed those responsabilities. In addition to his administrative duties as Section Head, Ken was named Acting Director of the George C. Page Museum at Rancho La Brea in March 1995, a position he still occupies as of mid-September. Everyone is yearning for a long period of stability.
        Ken CAMPBELL spent four weeks in July and August in Amazonian Peru in search of fossils. No bird fossils were found, but new primates were recovered in what may be the oldest Tertiary microfauna from the Amazona. Lots of geological and sedimentological data were gathered to support ongoing studies of the Tertiary evolution of the Amazon Basin.
        On a personal note, Ken and Denise had to relocate from their home for several months as it was undergoing major reconstruction to repair earthquake damage. They are now back in their home and, although some finishing work is still going on, wish to invite any of their friends and colleagues who may be passing through or near Los Angeles to stop in for a visit.

Lubbock, Texas

        Most of the research efforts of Sankar CHATTERJEE this year have focussed on the origin and early evolution of birds and the KT extinction event. His paper on the triassic bird Protoavis which was presented at the 1994 International Ornithological Congress at Vienna will appear in the forthcoming issue of Archaeopteryx (edited by W. BOCK & P. BÜHLER). Also, the second monograph on the postcranial skeleton of Protoavis has been accepted for publication in Palaeontographica. In this paper he has included new material of Protoavis and discussed in detail the origin of flight and the phylogeny of Mesozoic birds. A collaborative work with his Russian colleagues (E. KUROCHKIN and K. E. MIKHAILOV) on a new embryonic bird from the Cretaceous Gobi Desert of Mongolia will be featured in Nature. This new bird, Gobipipus reshetovi, displays more advanced features that the coeval enantiornithine species Gobipipus minuta from the same horizon. Both the skull and postcranial skeleton of Gobipipus are fully ossified like modern precocial bird and shares a suite of synapomorphies with Neornithes. The discovery of Gobipipus supports the hypothesis that neornithine bird existed alongside enantiornithines in the Cretaceous ecosystem, yet survived the KT catastrophe.
        Currently Sankar is writing a book entitled “The Rise of Birds” to be published by the John Hopkins University Press. In this book he has traced the evolutionary history of Mesozoic birds, their phylogeny, and the origin of flight. Some of the SAPE members may be wondering what happenend to the Antarctic loon which Sankar collected some time ago from the Late Cretaceous Bertodano Formation of Seymour Island ? Well, he will talk about it in the 1996 SAPE meeting at the Smithsonian. In case some persons are interested, he will bring the specimen at the meeting, for examination.

New York

        In June 1995, Allison V. ANDORS contributed an invited article on Diatryma to a special issue of Natural History on dinosaurs sensu lato, including fossil birds, publication of which coincided with the respective openings of the American Museum's new, phylogenetically arranged halls of ornitischian and saurischian dinosaurs. The saurischian hall contains an alcove devoted to birds, including the Eocene Diatryma and Presbyornis. The former was the subject of Dr. ANDORS's doctoral dissertation (1988) and some subsequent publications (1991, 1992); the latter was collected in Wyoming by ANDORS and colleagues during a joint American Museum - Smithsonian Institution expedition in 1990. The new article questions wether birds are correctly placed in the new saurischian hall, given the evolutionary convergence that has occurred between bipedal theropods and flightless birds such as Diatryma.
        A joint paper by ANDORS and François VUILLEUMIER (1995) reports the apparent first documented instance of breeding of the Short-billed Pipit, Anthus furcatus, in Patagonia, based on an active nest that they discovered at Punta Delgada, Chubut, Argentina, during an expedition in November 1993. Another joint paper, by VUILLEUMIER and ANDORS (1995), reviews the history of avian biogeography in North America from the 18th to the 20th century.

        During 1994-1995, Luis CHIAPPE worked on several papers for “Mesozoic Birds: Above the Heads of Dinosaurs” (L. CHIAPPE & L. WITMER Eds.), and review articles on the early evolution of birds for Nature and The Auk (together with K. PADIAN). Other projects included several reports on dinosaurs from Mongolia and Pterosaurs from Argentina. Luis spent last summer in the Gobi desert. After the field season, he attended the IV Symposium on Mesozoic Terrestrial Ecosystems, in Beijing, where he presented a review of the Mesozoic birds from Mongolia (Abstract not published). Over the next two years Luis is planning to produce a comprehensive phylogenetic study of all non-neornithine genera (supported by the Guggenheim and Chapman Foundations). Additional projects will include the description of the complete enantiornithine ensemble from El Brete (together with C. WALKER), and the study of additional specimens of Gobipteryx and Mononykus (together with M. NORELL and J. CLARK), and of a new Early Cretaceous bird from Spain (together with J.L. SANZ).

San Francisco

        Sylvia HOPE is continuing review of Lance birds and description of new specimens from the type Lance Formation, Wyoming (Late Cretaceous). All specimens are isolated fragments posing difficulties for identification and phylogenetic determination. Most of the birds are neornithine shorebirds and seabirds. The new information on Lance birds will be included in a chapter as part of the book “Over the Heads of the Dinosaurs” to be edited by Luis CHIAPPE and Larry WITMER. This chapter will be a review of known neornithine birds in the Mesozoic. She would like to correspond with anyone having unpublished information on such birds.
        In order to place the Lance specimens phylogenetically it has been necessary to do a broad review of the quadrate, shoulder girdle, and hindlimb in modern birds. Synthetizing all this observation will be the next project.

Yale University

        During this past July, John H. OSTROM participated with others in the 2nd International Symposium on Lithographic Limestones, held in Cuenca, Spain, organised by Prof. Jose SANZ and his associates. Aside from the field trip to Las Hoyas (the famed site of Iberomesoronis and Concornis), he accepted Jose SANZ's invitation to visit his laboratories at Autonoma University in Madrid, where he experienced a rare priviledge. There he was able to study the type specimens of Iberomesornis and Concornis and also several new avian specimens that currently are under study by Dr. SANZ and his students. This new Las Hoyas material will be reported by Dr. SANZ and his colleagues soon. From Spain, he proceeded to Germany and met with Gunther VIOHL to see his new Solnhofen locality near Eichstätt and then joining Peter WELLNHOFER for his third scrutiny of the marvelous specimen of Archaeopteryx bavarica.
ANDORS A.V. (1995) - Diatryma among the dinosaurs. Natural History, 104 (6): 68-71.
ANDORS A.V. & VUILLEUMIER F. (1995) - Breeding of Anthus furcatus (Aves: Motacillidae) in Northern Patagonia, with a review of the breeding biology of the species. Ornitologia Neotropical, 6 (1): 37-52.
ARREDONDO O. & OLSON S.L. (1994) - A new species of owl of the genus Bubo from the Pleistocene of Cuba (Aves: Strigiformes). Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 107 (3): 436-444.
BOCHERENS H., EMSLIE S. D., BILLIOU D. & MARIOTTI A. (1995) - Stable Isotopes (13 C, 15N) and paleodiet of the giant short-faced bear (Arctodus simus). C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 320, sér. II a: 779-784.
CAMPBELL K. E. (1995) - A review fo the cranes (Aves: Gruidae) of Rancho La Brea, with the description of a new species. Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, 452: 1-13.
CHATTERJEE S. (1994) - Protoavis from the Triassic of Texas: the oldest bird. (Abs.) Journ. für Ornith., 135: 330.
CHATTERJEE S. & KUROCHKIN E. N. (1994) - A new embryonic bird from the Cretaceous of Mongolia. Journ. Vert. Paleont., 14 (3) Suppl.: 20 A.
CHIAPPE L.M., NORELL M. & CLARK J.M. (1994) - The phylogenetic position of Mononykus (Theropoda: Avialae) from the Cretaceous of Mongolia. Journ. Vert. Paleont., 14 (3) Suppl.: 20A.
CHIAPPE L.M., NORELL M.A. & CLARK J.M. (1995) - Comment on Wellnhofer's new data on the origin and evolution of birds. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 320, sér. II a: 1031-1032.
CHIAPPE L.M. (1995) - A diversity of early birds. Natural History, 104 (6): 52-55.
CHIAPPE L.M., NORELL M.A. & CLAK J.M. (1995) - Mononykus y el origen de las aves. Ciencia Hoy, 5 (29): 16-21.
CHIAPPE L.M., RIVAROLA D., CIONE A., FREGENAL-MARTINEZ M., BUSCALIONI A., SOZZI H., BUATOIS L., GALLEGO O., ROMERO E., LOPEZ-ALBARELLO A., McGEHEE S., MARSICANO C., ADAMONIS S., LAZA J., ORTEGA F. & DI ORIO O. (1995) - Inland biota from a Lower Cretaceous lagerstätten of central Argentina. 2nd International Symposium on Lithographic Limestones, Cuenca, Spain.
CHINSAMY A., CHIAPPE L.M. & DODSON P. (1994) - Growth rings in Mesozoic avian bones: physiological implications for basal birds. Journ. Vert. Paleont., 14 (3) Suppl.: 21A.
CHINSAMY A., CHIAPPE L.M. & DODSON P. (1994) - Growth rings in Mesozoic birds. Nature, 368: 196-197.
DASHZEVEG D., NOVACEK M.J., NORELL M.A., CLARK J.M., CHIAPPE L.M., DAVIDSON A., McKENNA M.C., DINGUD L., SWISHER C. & PERLE A. (1995) - Extraordinary preservation in a new vertebrate assemblage from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia. Nature, 374: 446-449.
ELZANOWSKI A. & WELLNHOFER P. (1995) - The skull of Archaeopteryx and the origin of birds. Archaeopteryx, 13 : 41-46.
EMSLIE S. D. (1995) - An Early Irvingtonian Avifauna from Leisey Shell Pit, Florida. Bull. Florida Mus. Natur. Hist., 37, Pt 1 (10): 299-344.
EMSLIE S. D. (1995) - Age and taphonomy of abandoned penguin rookeries in the Antarctic Peninsula. Polar Record, 31 (179): 409-418.
EMSLIE S. D. (1995) - A catastrophic death assemblage of a new species of cormorant and other seabirds from the Late Pliocene of Florida. Journ. Vert. Paleont., 15: 313-330.
EMSLIE S. D. (1995) - The fossil record of Arctodus pristinus (Ursidae: Tremarctinae) in Florida. Bull. Florida Mus. Natur. Hist., 37: 501-514.
EMSLIE S. D., KARNOVSKY N., & TRIVELPIECE W. (1995) - Avian predation at penguin colonies on King George Island, Antarctica. Wilson Bull., 107: 317-327.
EMSLIE S. D. & MORGAN G. S. (1995) - Taphonomy of a Late Pleistocene carnivore den, Dade County, Florida. In : D. W. STEADMAN & J. I. MEAD (Eds.) - Late Quaternary Environments and Deep History: A Tribute to Paul S. Martin. The Mammoth Site of Hot Springs, Scientific Papers, 3: 65-83.
FEDUCCIA A. (1995) - Explosive evolution in Tertiary Birds and Mammals. Science, 267: 637-638.
JAMES H.F. (1995) - Prehistoric extinctions and ecological changes on oceanic islands, pages 87-102, In P.M. VITOUSEK, L.L. LOUPE & H. ADERSEN (Eds.) - Islands: Biological diversity and Ecosystem Function. Berlin: Springer.
MILLENER P. R. (1993) - Avian evolution on oceanic islands, with particular reference to New Zealand and the Chatham Islands. INTER-INQUA Conference (Australasian Quaternary Association), Canberra, April 15-18, 1993. Program Notes and Abstracts: 60.
MILLENER P. R. (with COOPER R. A.) (1993) - The New Zealand Biota: Historical Background and New Research. Elsevier Trends Journals, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 8 (12): 429-433.
MILLENER P.R. (with VICKERS-RICH P., TRUSLER P., ROWLEY M.J., COOPER A., CHAMBERS G.K., BOCK W.J., WORTHY T.H., & YAZLDWYN J.C. (1995) - Morphology, myology, collagen and DNA of a mummufied Upland moa, Megalapteryx didinus (Aves: Dinornithiformes) from New Zealand. Tuhinga: Records of the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa, 4: 1-26.
NORELL M., CLARK J.M., BARSBOLD R., & CHIAPPE L.M. (1994) - Oviraptorids and dromaeosaurids and their association with presumed theropod nests. Journ. Vert. Paleont., 14 (3) Suppl.: 40A.
NORELL M.A., CLARK J.M., DASHZEVEG D., BARSBOLD R., CHIAPPE L.M., DAVIDSON A.R., McKENNA M.C., & NOVACEK M.J. (1994) - A Theropod Dinosaur Embryo, and the Affinities of the Flaming Cliffs Dinosaur Eggs. Science, 266: 779-782.
OLSON S.L. (1994) - A giant Presbyornis (Aves: Anseriformes) and other birds from the Paleocene Aquia Formation of Maryland and Virginia. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 107 (3): 429-435.
OLSON S.L. (1994) - Cranial osteology of Tawny and Steppe Eagles Aquila rapax and A. nipalensis. Bull. Brit. Ornith. Club, 114 (4): 264-267.
OLSON S.L. (1995) - The genera of owls in the Asioninae. Bull. Brit. Ornith. Club, 115 (1): 35-39.
OLSON S.L. & JAMES H.F. (1994) - A specimen of Nuku pu'u (Aves: Drepanidini: Hemignathus lucidus) from the island of Hawaii. Pacific Science, 48 (4): 331-338.
OLSON S.L. & ZIEGLER A.C. (1995) - Remains of land birds from Lisianski Island, with observations on the terrestrial avifauna of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Pacific Science, 49 (2): 111-125.
OSTROM J.H. (1991) - The bird in the bush. Nature, 353: 212.
OSTROM J.H. (1994) - On the origin of birds and of avian flight. Major features of vertebrate evolution, 17th annual Short Course of the Paleontological Society, 1994: 160-177.
OSTROM J.H. (1995) - Wing biomechanics and the origin of bird flight. Neues Jb. Geol. Paläont. Abh., Festschrift A. Seilacher, 195: 253-266.
SANZ J.L., CHIAPPE L.M. & BUSCALIONI (1995) - The osteology of Concornis lacustris (Aves: Enantiornithes) from the Lower Cretaceous of Spain and a reexamination of its phylogenetic relationships. Amer. Mus. Novit., 3133: 1-23.
VARRICCHIO D.J. & CHIAPPE L.M. (1995) - A new bird from the Cretaceous Two Medicine Formation of Montana. Journ. Vert. Paleont., 15 (1): 201-204.
VUILLEUMIER F. & ANDORS A.V. (1995) - Origins and development of North American avian biogeography. Memoirs of the Nuttall Ornithological Club, 12: 387-428.

Changes of address

Pier Franceso CASSOLI, Istituto italiano di Paleontologia umana, Piazza Mincio, 2, 00198 Roma, and Laboratorio di Paleontologia del Quaternario e Archeozoologia. Soprintendenza Speciale al Museo Nazionale Preistorico Etnografico “L. Pigorini”, viale Lincoln, 3, 00144 Roma, ITALY, tel. 06. 5923059, Fax 5919132.

Ken CAMPBELL, email : Fax : 213-933-3974

Andrej ELZANOWSKI, Research associate, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, and Adjunct Associate Professor, Department of Poultry Science, 3115 Animal Science Center, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2315, U.S.A.

Jerry D. HARRIS, Schuler Museum of Paleontology, Department of Geological Sciences, Southern Methodist University, Box 750395, Dallas TX 75275-0395, U.S.A.

Phil MILLENER, 1211 Aladdin Road, Lookout Mountain, Georgia 30750, U.S.A. Tel. & Fax (706) 820 9884.

Lawrence M. WITMER, PhD, Department of Biological Sciences and College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, 45701, U.S.A. Tel. (614) 593-2290, Fax (614) 593-0300, email:

ZHOU ZHONGHE Natural History Museum, Dyche Hall, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045-2454, U.S.A.

New Members

Matsuoka HIROSHIGE, Division of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 506, JAPAN

Jolyon PARISH, 20, Green Trees Avenue, Cold Norton, Essex, CM3 6JA, ENGLAND

Marco PAVIA, Corso Bramante 76, 10 126 Torino, ITALY

Attila D. SANDOR, Univ. Babes-Bolyai, Fac. Biol. Geol., Department of Zoology, Str. Clinicilor 5-7, 3400 Cluj-Napoca, ROMANIA


Edited by David W. STEADMAN and Jim I. MEAD

From September 23 through 25, 1993, the Mammoth Site of Hot Springs, SD, Inc. hosted the symposium Late Quaternary Environments and Deep History (a Tribute to Paul S. Martin). Most of the presented talks are published here in the symposium volume, edited by Dave Steadman and Jim Mead. This publication also includes a chapter from Paul S. Martin. 192 pages. 44 figures. Price 15.00 $. Mammoth Site of Hot Springs, SD, Inc. PO Box 692, Hot Springs, SD, 57747, U.S.A.


This information letter has been compiled by Cécile Mourer-Chauviré, Secretary of the SAPE. A contribution of ten US dollars, or the equivalent in other currencies, for assisting in defraying xerocopies and mailing expenses, will be highly appreciated (banknotes in major currencies preferred).

Drawing from a clay figure of a marine bird, Museo de Antropologia, Mexico.